Terminals Are Weird

Note: I'll use octal numerals to represent ASCII in this article.

Terminals1 are quite weird. Most modern users assume that they can just have straightfoward keybindings. Right? To bind Ctrl+i to something, they listen for Ctrl+i in their application. If they want to bind Ctrl+Shift+i to something different, they certainly can, they just listen for Ctrl+Shift+i as well. Naturally, they can rebind Tab without rebinding Ctrl+i/Shift+i. And if they can bind something like Ctrl+\, surely they can also bind something like Ctrl+=. Of course, whether a keybinding like Alt+char is actually succesfully picked up by their terminal application is entirely independent of the quality of their network connection. They know that Ctrl+char and Ctrl+Shift+char are distinct keybindings, and that if those aren't distinct keybindings, certainly Alt+char and Alt+Shift+char must not be distinct either.

Sadly, this (sanity and straightforwardness) is a feature that terminals lack.


If you want to investigate how your terminal is interpreting a key combination, you have two good options. You can run cat -v and enter the key combination, or you can run emacs, hit Ctrl+h c, and enter the key combination. The latter is more descriptive and easier to understand, but they both work.

cat -v will show variations on ^c for non-printable characters, like the character received when holding Ctrl and typing c. It shows ^[ for Escape. The next sections explain why.


The "Ctrl" or "Control" key is so called because it is used to send control characters. Control characters are not actual characters, but are rather used to control the terminal that they are "printed" on. This is an example of in-band signaling.

To see some control characters, look at man ascii. All characters have a character code; in ASCII, this is a 7-bit pattern, taking up 7 out of 8 bits in a byte. The characters with codes from 0000 to 0037 are control characters.

To send a control character to the application running in a terminal, hold down Ctrl while pressing another character. This modifies the sent character code by clearing its 7th and 6th bits (indexed starting at 1). For reference, the 7th and 6th bits are the ones set in 0140. This is equivalent to bitwise anding the character code with 0037. Again, whenever you hold down Ctrl and press another character while in a terminal, the 8-bit character code that represents that character is modified according to this scheme.

This scheme maps each ASCII character to a control character. However, this is not an injective mapping. That is, multiple ASCII characters map to the same control character. Looking at man ascii, we can see that lower and upper case alphabetic characters (such as 'g', 0107, and 'G', 0147) differ only by the 6th bit.2 The 6th bit is cleared by Ctrl, so the same alphabetic characters ('g' and 'G') get mapped to the same control character (BEL, 0007).

This modification is done by your terminal or terminal emulator. A terminal communicates your input to the application running in the terminal (such as bash or emacs) with a stream of bytes. There is no (standard) way to specify in this stream of bytes, "This 'g' byte that I am sending you was entered with the Control key held down". Instead, a terminal will just send the corresponding control-character-byte to the application running in the terminal. When you type "Ctrl-g" on your keyboard, the terminal will send the byte 0007, "BEL". If you typed just "g", the terminal would send 0147.

This mapping could also apply to the non-alphanumeric characters in the lower left column of man ascii, such as ' (single quote). ' is represented by the byte 0047, which differs from 'g', 0107, and 'G', 0147, only by the 6th and 7th bits, which are supposedly cleared by holding down Ctrl. So "Ctrl-'", like "Ctrl-g" and "Ctrl-G", would presumably send BEL, 0007. If that were the case, each control character would be be mapped to by exactly three other characters. Unfortunately, most terminal emulators either pass through the entered character verbatim, or map it to some other seemingly random control character3; none of the characters in the lower left get mapped to the control character resulting from clearing the 6th and 7th bits. So pressing "Ctrl-'" will send 0047 to the application running in the terminal, just as if you had pressed '.

Look again at man ascii to see all the mappings. In GNU/Linux, the table is arranged so that the upper case alphabetic character and the control character it is mapped to are on the same row.

As a result, the following triples of keys (among others) are equivalent and indistinguishable to a terminal:

  • Ctrl+i, Ctrl+Shift+i, Tab
  • Ctrl+j, Ctrl+Shift+j, Enter
  • Ctrl+[, Ctrl+Shift+[, Escape

These equivalences are useful. These control characters are heavily used, and the keys that directly send them are placed in unergonomic locations, so sending them with Ctrl can be useful.

The last one in particular is very useful for vi/vim users. It is in fact emulated in gvim and other graphical vi-keybinding-using applications (at least, all the ones I've used), so you should be able to always use Ctrl+[ to go to normal mode.

Some other useful control characters to send are:

  • Ctrl+d, Ctrl+Shift+d, EOF
  • Ctrl+g, Ctrl+Shift+g, BEL

Key points:

  • When you rebind any one of those triples, you rebind all of them
  • You cannot have separate keybindings for any two or three members of a triple
  • Ctrl+char and Ctrl+Shift+char are not distinct.

Flow Control

Ctrl+q and Ctrl+s send, respectively, DC1 (device control 1) and DC3 (device control 3). As it happens, these are the control characters for software flow control.

Code Meaning ASCII Octal Keyboard
XOFF Pause transmission DC3 023 Ctrl+s
XON Resume transmission DC1 021 Ctrl+q

If you hit Ctrl+s while software flow control is enabled (like at a shell prompt), your terminal will freeze until you hit Ctrl+q. Fortunately, console applications like vim and Emacs disable software flow control. You can disable it in your shell by adding the following lines to your shell's rc file (~/.bashrc, for bash).

stty -ixon 
stty -ixoff


The keyboards of today inherit their "Alt" key from the IBM PC keyboard, where it provided a feature now known as "Alt codes". By holding Alt and typing a decimal number, you could directly enter the corresponding 8-bit character code, even if it there was no key for it on your keyboard.

The IBM PC keyboard lacked another key which was present on Unix keyboards: Meta. Meta's original behavior was to set the 8th bit, the value of which was left unspecified by 7-bit character specifications like ASCII. Every character thus had a Meta equivalent, and detecting whether Meta was held while entering the character could be done just by checking the value of the 8th bit.

When Unices were ported to the PC, Alt was repurposed to serve as Meta. (Emacs users are already familiar with this story.) Unfortunately, by this point, networking was quite popular, and many networking programs (such as the Internet) were not 8-bit clean. They would put arbitrary data in the 8th bit, since they were never required not to. Thus the original behavior of Meta unconditionally setting the 8th bit, and Meta-aware applications checking the 8th bit to see if Meta was held, would cause problems.

Thus, the following emulation method was chosen4: When Alt+char is pressed, send "ESC" before sending 'char'. ESC, of course, was already used for escape codes. Up to this point, ESC usually wouldn't appear in user input. There would be no point, because user input was delivered to the application running in the terminal, rather than being printed on the terminal screen as would be necessary for the escape codes to have the appropriate effect. As a result, ESC could be reused to mean something different when it was present in user input. Now if it occurred in user input, it would mean "The character that follows was entered with Meta held down".

Of course, some applications had already followed the same logic and were responding to ESC and the Escape key in a different way. But they wouldn't be running at the same time as ported Unix applications, and they didn't make use of Meta/Alt, so the difference in behavior wasn't a problem.

For example, ESC is used by vi/vim for mode switching. Try Alt+i while in insert mode in vi/vim. It sends Escape, then i, switching you out of insert mode and then right back in. This is why there are no Meta/Alt keybindings in vim.

So, you can't robustly have separate keybindings for Escape and Alt+char, since they are the same thing. Sometimes you really want separate bindings, though. In Emacs evil-mode, for example, it is useful to simultaneously use Escape for vim emulation, and use traditional emacs keybindings that make use of Meta/Alt. In this case, the keybindings are implemented by a timeout in the application every time you press Escape. If you press another key fast enough after Escape, the application assumes what you actually pressed was Alt+char, and interprets it appropriately.

This fails if you have a slow input connection, which you have if you are using the application over a slow network, often through ssh and screen/tmux. This is generally fixed by increasing the Escape/Alt timeout in the specific application. mosh doesn't have this problem, because it detects Alt+char vs. Escape locally, and makes sure to send Escape+char together through the network when it recognizes the former.

Key points:

  • Alt+char and Alt+Shift+char are distinct, because they send Escape, then char or Shift+char.
  • Whether Alt+char is succesfully picked up by your terminal application is dependent on the quality of your connection.
  • In applications that don't listen for Escape on its own, you can send Alt+char by pressing Escape, then char

A thought

I suspect these keybinding problems are a large part of why vi/vim is modal and uses the alphabetic keys heavily, and emacs uses key chords (sequences like Ctrl+x Ctrl+s to save). Their set of available key bindings is reduced by the quirks of the terminal, so they need to stretch them to fit their functionality.

A caution

Terminals have a lot of quirks, but they are still very useful and widely used. So a project Y to create a new and improved terminal, where Y is to terminals as Wayland is to X11, sounds like a pretty good and useful idea at first. You could have a sane and modern keybinding schema, and a better display-control-interface too.

But the benefit of terminals is mainly the existing tooling support. Your neo-terminal won't automatically work with ssh for remote work, nor tmux for detached running of applications. Any applications written for it will only run on the platforms that you port your neo-terminal to; they certainly won't have the wide support that the standard terminal has. If you do make sure you're backwards-compatible, you have to leave almost all of the cruft in place, so the reinvention is only marginally useful. (although projects like terminus might be a cool incremental improvement)

In the end, if you fully redesign the terminal and bring it up to modern standards, you'll just have created a rather limited graphical toolkit focused on text-based applications, without any of the advantages that terminals actually hold. In which case, why not just write your application with a real graphical toolkit, such as GTK? It has a lot more features and better support. Just make sure your application has good support for keyboard control. If you want, run the application code as a daemon to support running detached from the UI, make it network-transparent to support remote work, and create a corresponding command line tool to integrate it with the shell and compose in a Unixy way.5

A recommendation

If you do still want or need to make a terminal application that is interactive rather than just being a command-line tool, what is the best way to go about it? You should write it inside Emacs, using Emacs Lisp, and run it as an application by invoking Emacs to run the function that is the entry point for your application. This way you can have legacy terminal support to make use of ssh and tmux, by running Emacs in a terminal, and modern graphical support to display fancy graphics and use more keybindings, by running Emacs in a graphical environment. And of course, you don't have to use Emacs as an editor just to run applications that use it. In this context, it is an application toolkit, not an editor; your users don't have to interact with any other part of Emacs.



A terminal is a physical piece of hardware, like this. The application you use on your modern graphical personal computer to run bash and emacs and various other programs is a terminal emulator, so called because it emulates the behavior (the "API") of a physical terminal. The behavior I describe in this article is the behavior of the VT220 (among other physical terminals), as well as VT220 terminal emulators such as xterm, urxvt, GNOME Terminal, Terminal.app, and iTerm2. In this article, I use the word "terminal" generically to refer to a member of this group. This is slightly inaccurate, since there are many varieties of physical terminal and some do not exhibit the behavior described in this article, but necessary for the sake of a concise explanation.


In fact, it used to be true that Shift in a terminal would just set the 6th bit. This hasn't been true for a long time, though. The effect of Shift (to capitalize and otherwise change the letters entered) is now handled by X11 (or the equivalent part of the desktop stack on other platforms) and so your terminal emulator just ignores the actual Shift key.


I don't know why this is the case. If you know, contact me and I can include that. Here is a table of the characters in the lower-left that map to strange control characters on my terminal, urxvt.

Character Code resulting from entering Ctrl-character
- ^_
/‚Äč ^_
2 ^@
3 ^[
4 ^\
5 ^]
6 ^^
7 ^_
: ;

Though I understand why this was chosen, I'm not really sure who chose this or when it was chosen; if you know, contact me and I can include that.


libvirt and its associated tools are a good example of what I recommend here.

Created: 2015-08-30 Sun 00:46

Emacs 24.5.1 (Org mode 8.2.10)